Information And Data Management


Information contains context, whereas data, literally, just includes entries. Information can contain data with different contents and formats and be the same thing. Digging deeper, the Latin root of the word “data” means “something given,” a piece of a larger picture. Data must apply to a context or a reason to do something about it. Business relies on meaningful data patterns to get information, in this article let’s explore the differences and similarities between data and information. The word “data” was first used to mean “transmissible and storable computer information” in 1946.

  • Organizations have to identify and document all data to facilitate its subsequent identification, proper management, and effective use, and to avoid collecting or purchasing the same data multiple times.
  • You never know what insights will transpire, and without data, the continuum falls apart.
  • Today Knowledge Management plays a significant role in the development of an organization.
  • Based on the definition provided by TechTerms, raw data is “unprocessed computer data.

For example, the deterioration of a factory building may impact production. In short, activities and situations generate information that feed into the decision-making process. The following diagram illustrates the relationships between data and information. While our review used major databases and systematic methods, it nevertheless has some limitations that are worth noting. First, we included only peer-reviewed studies that were published in English, and therefore may have overlooked potentially relevant studies published in the grey literature or written in other languages. Additionally, given our focus on original research, we did not search the broader body of literature for books, reports, or grey literature.

As sales manager of an online-store, your database fills itself every day with data such as the time and date of a purchase, the geographic location of your clients, their age, the total amount of orders, etc. Most likely you will be interested in looking at how much money you make each day, and a few other factors, plus you will have set your systems to send you an update about it each day. As you will see, in this and other examples, powerful insights are rarely obtained by looking at just one dimension of data. Context and correlation are important in order to reveal insights. Data analytics platforms and technologies that have the capability of synthesizing data of different types are important in order to get the best insights.

Examples Of Data And Information

The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century and the invention of a mechanical calculator by Blaise Pascal in the 17th century are but two examples. These inventions led to a profound revolution in the ability to record, process, disseminate, and reach for information and knowledge. This led, in turn, to even deeper changes in individual lives, business organization, and human governance. Whereas Information is in the form of ideas and inferences or conclusions that are based on the data.

information and data management

An organization may enhance a process to catch fraudulent activities by including historical risk-related data. Over time, this type of process improvement can result in material savings. Even a single execution of a business process can translate into substantial benefits, such as using data patterns to stop a terrorist at a border or filtering a cyber attack. Information systems require a comprehensive strategy to deploy best practices that drive actionable insights. Some of these best practices include data integration, data virtualization, event stream processing, metadata management, data quality management, and data governance, to name a few. Before the development of computing devices and machines, people had to manually collect data and impose patterns on it.

Difference Between Information And Data

So the data about the transaction is processed to create “information” – in this case a receipt. You can imagine that the same data would also be useful to the manager of the retail store. For example, a report showing total sales in the day, or which are the best-selling products. So the data concerning all shop transactions in the day needs to be captured, and then processed into a management report. Information is a set of data which is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement. Information is processed, structured, or presented in a given context to make it meaningful and useful. Data is always interpreted, by a human or machine, to derive meaning.

With meaningful data i.e Information, an organization or a business entity can make a decision. Let me explain the ten key difference points between both with some real-life examples. And generally, we say, “Data is a collection of raw facts and figures that we need to process to extract meaning or information”. Data is something that you can consider as a low level of knowledge. In this, you have some scattered, uncategorized, unorganized entities that do not really mean anything.

information and data management

You would say John Smith lives where you use grams to weigh stuff, find Dublin, Edinburgh, and London, and eat fish and chips. From an information viewpoint, the “United Kingdom,” “UNITED KINGDOM,” and “U.K.” represent the same thing, a shared data pattern about a geographical reason. You know this because someone with some understanding of geography can point to the “United Kingdom” or the “U.K.” on a European map. Other people will also point to an identical geographical area.

Turning Data Into Action: How Are Organizations Doing?

Data can be structured, tabular data, graph, data tree whereas Information is language, ideas, and thoughts based on the given data. Data measured in bits and bytes, on the other hand, Information is measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc. A group of data which carries news and meaning is called Information. Information is “knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance.” Information is a sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as a message.

Explore our resources and develop your understanding of how to drive data quality. Data are often assumed to be the least abstract concept, information the next least, and knowledge the most abstract.

After removing duplicates from the various database searches, we identified 1459 potential articles. Two reviewers independently screened the search results by title and abstract for inclusion eligibility. When there was insufficient information to determine eligibility at the title and abstract screening stage, the article was included for full-text screening. Full texts of the potentially eligible articles were then obtained and further screened for inclusion eligibility. At both stages, the reasons for excluding individual articles were recorded. Where an agreement could not be reached, a third reviewer made the final determination. We identified 132 studies that met our inclusion criteria, originating in 37 different countries.

Data visualizations, reports, and dashboards are used to view and present the data, so that information can be gleaned from it. Now you can work with information, which is a collection of data points that help you to understand your customers better. There are a number of techniques available to help you interpret this information. For example, you could calculate averages, percentages, or ratios. Graphical techniques, such as line charts, bar graphs, or pie charts, help to see the nature of data, trends over time, etc. Knowledge is the cognition or recognition (know-what), capacity to act (know-how), and understanding (know-why) that resides or is contained within the mind or in the brain.

We suggest that future program evaluations should consider their use more broadly, to assess an increased variety of health conditions in conjunction with, or as a replacement for, household or facility survey methods. Malaria and maternal health conditions were the most commonly studied health conditions, despite the fact that RHISs collect data on a wide range of other diseases and conditions. In particular, the use of RHIS data for non-communicable diseases research was very limited. As LMICs are undergoing an epidemiologic transition and the importance of NCDs is increasing , LMIC health systems face the increasing challenges of addressing the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases .

A few studies also used RHIS data to describe specific programs , conduct impact evaluations (non-programmatic) , and estimate costs . Most of the studies investigated a communicable disease (95%), of which malaria was most studied health condition (24%). A few studies focused on mental health (2%), diabetes mellitus (1%), and permanent tooth extraction (1%). Only two studies used RHIS data to research the health workforce or the equity of funding allocations . Of the 1459 unique articles retrieved from the database search, 132 studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text screening and were thus included in the review. Three quarters of the studies were from Sub-Saharan African countries (74%), followed by South Asia (11%). The vast majority of the studies were published in the last decade, and more than half were published after 2014 (55%), suggesting an increase in the use of RHIS data for research purposes over time.

You may even be asked to help identify your firm’s data requirements. It’s quite common for nontech employees to work on development teams with technical staff, defining business problems, outlining processes, setting requirements, and determining the kinds of data the firm will need to leverage. Database systems are powerful stuff, and can’t be avoided, so a bit of understanding will serve you well. Most organizations have several databases—perhaps even hundreds or thousands. And these various databases might be focused on any combination of functional areas , geographical regions, or business units. Firms often create specialized databases for recording transactions, as well as databases that aggregate data from multiple sources in order to support reporting and analysis. Data becomes information when it’s presented in a context so that it can answer a question or support decision making.

It can be anything like name of a person or a place or a number etc. Data is the name given to basic facts and entities such as names and numbers. The main examples of data are weights, prices, costs, numbers of items sold, employee names, product names, addresses, tax codes, registration marks etc.

This information adds meaning and improves the reliability of the data, ensuring understandability and reduces uncertainty. To transform or to extract information from data one have to make it free from unnecessary details or immaterial things, which has some value as per the need. The picture changes in an enterprise environment because there are competing needs for the same sets of data. For example, an accounting department must account for every penny to avoid legal consequences, whereas budgeting operations are typically not concerned with small dollar variations. In this environment, all the data quality characteristics are important, but usage determines what is acceptable and what is not. Another common factor is the variation in terminology, such as using the same word to mean two different things or using different coding lists for equivalent attributes.

Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine. Today Knowledge Management plays a significant role in the development of an organization. In the world of computers, data is the input, or what you tell the computer to do or save. Information is the output, or how the computer interprets your data and shows you the requested action or directive. In common usage that is less likely to recognize datum, “data” has become a mass noun in many cases and takes on a singular verb (e.g., The data is ready.). When this happens, it is very easy for “data” and “information” to be used interchangeably (e.g., The information is ready.).

A sound governance program includes a governing council, an accountability structure, a defined set of procedures, and a plan to execute those procedures. The Data Governance Framework presented in Figure 3 provides an overview of the expected governance roles and responsibilities, accountability, and authority for the strategic, collaborative, and operational levels and the IT subject matter experts. Data Management DisciplinesData without context has no value; data that consumers never use is worthless, also.

The raw data is analyzed and organized in whatever context and only the necessary data is kept and the rest is discarded. Models remain models and, knowing all these evolutions, we need to dive deeper to understand what data, information, knowledge and content is, why it matters and, most of all, how to derive value from it by creating systems of insight . Moreover, with big data and analytics, the classic approach of information/knowledge management in some form of hierarchic pyramid is a bit hard to sustain and was always a point of debate as mentioned. This results from processing, interpreting, and organizing raw facts and figures into meaningful formats that can influence decisions. The definition of information is essentially the “imparting of knowledge.” Depending on this purpose, data processing can involve different operations such as combining different sets of data , ensuring that the collected data is relevant and accurate , etc. For example, we can organize our data in a way that exposes relationships between various seemingly disparate and disconnected data points.